E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA.

Cited by (7)

Abstract
Background: Refractive Error is an avoidable cause of visual impairment. Diagnosis and Treatment of refractive errors is the simplest and most effective forms of eye care.

Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence and determinants of uncorrected refractive errors, among school children of 7-15 years.

Material and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study of 1378 government school children of 7- 15 years age group in both rural and urban field practice areas of Dr. BR Ambedkar Medical College, Bangalore. Students were screened for defective vision with the help of Snellen’s chart and refractionist confirmed the findings. Students with refractive error were provided with spectacles free of cost. Data was analysed to determine the prevalence of refractive errors among the school children.

Results: 687 children of urban and 691 children of rural area were examined. 53.6% of the study population were boys and 46.4% were girls. The mean age of the study group was 12.4 years. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban and rural children was 7.03%. The prevalence of Myopia, Hypermetropia and Astigmatism in children was 4.4%, 1.03%, 1.6% respectively. Children 13 to years 15 attending urban schools were most likely to have uncorrected myopia. Hypermetropia was associated with younger age group and female children.

Conclusion: The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, especially myopia, was higher in older children. Causes of higher prevalence and barriers to refractive error correction services should be identified and addressed. Eye screening of school children is recommended.

Key words: Refractive Error; Prevalence; Hypermetropia; Myopia; School Children


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Pavithra MB
Articles by Maheshwaran R
Articles by Rani Sujatha MA
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 9421
Downloaded: 1429
Cited: 7


REFERENCES
1. Khurana AK. Text book of ophthalmology. 3rded. New Delhi: New Age International Publisher;2006:52-59.
2. World Health Organization.Global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness. Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness. Geneva: WHO, 1997.
3. World Health Organization. Preventing blindness in children: report of WHO/IAPB scientific meeting. Programme for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, and International Agency for Prevention of Blindness.Geneva: WHO, 2000.
4. Govt. of lndia (2004), Annual Report 2003-2004, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, 2005.
5. Sethi S, Kartha GP. Prevalence of refractive errors among school children (12-17years) of Ahmedabad city. Ind Journal of Com Med. 2000; 25: 181-83.
6. World Health Organization, Elimination of avoidable visual disability due to refractive error Report of an informal planning meeting WHO/PBL/00.79 pp: 6-10.
7. Park K. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 20th ed.Jabalpur: M/s BanarsidasBhanot;2009:498-501.
8. Murthy GV, Gupta SK, Ellwein LB, Mu-oz SR, Pokharel GP, Sanga L, et al. Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:623-631. [Pubmed]   
9. Kumar JV, Singh PC, Ahuja J, Mohan U. Ocular morbidity among school children in SarojiniNagar Lucknow. Indian J Community Med. 1992;17:109-113.
10. Sharma S, VashishtBM, KalhanM, GoelM. Magnitude of Refractive Errors among school children in a rural block of Haryana. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2009;6(2). [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
11. Proslan M, Novak C.The Baltimore vision screening project. Trop Med Int Health.1996:314-319.
12. Zhao J, Pan X, Sui R et al. Refractive error study in Children: results from Shunyi District, China. American JOphthalmol. 2000;129:427-35. [DOI via Crossref]   
13. Pokharel GP, Negrel AD, Munoz SR etal.Refractive error studies in Children: Results from mechi Zone, Nepal. American J Ophthalmol. 2000; 129:436-44. [DOI via Crossref]   
14. Maul E, Barroso S, Munoz SR, Sperduto RD, Ellwein LB. Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida. Chile Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:445-454. [DOI via Crossref]   
15. Matta S, Matta P, Gupta V, Dev A. Refractive errors among adolescents attending Ophthalmic OPD.IndJounComm Medicine. 2006-04 - 2005-06; 31(2)
16. Tay MT, Au Eong KG, Ng CY, Lim MK. Myopic & educational attainment in 421116 young Singaporean males. Ann Acad Med, Singapore. 1992;21:785-91. [Pubmed]   
17. Vivek T, Sandip Z, Janardhan V, Tapasi P. Prevalence of refractive errors in children aged 7-15 years in Gujarat, India.(cited 2008Sept 15).Available from: URL:http://www.nhlmmcgym.com/indian-journal6.htm.
18. Dandona R, Dandona L, M Shrinivas, P Giridhar, Catherine A, Rao G.N. Population- based assessment of Refractive errors in India -the Andhra Pradesh Eye Study. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2002:30:84-93. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
19. Afroz A Khan, A.R. Nasti,M, Ayoub Dar, Shafkat A Lone. Prevalence of refractive error in school children. JK-Practitioner 2005; 12(3) :156-159.
20. Padhye AS, Khandekar R, Dharmadhikari S, Dole K, Gogate P, Deshpande M. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and other eye problems among urban and rural school children. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2010 Jun21];16:69-74. Available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2009/16/2/69/53864.
21. Ali A,Ahmad I, Ayub S. Prevalence of undetected refractive error among school children of Lahore. Biomedica. 2007; 23:96-101.
22. Saw SM, Katz J, Schein OD, Chew SJ, Chan TK. Epidemiology of myopia. Epidemiol Rev. 1996;18:175-187. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Kalkivayi V, Naduvilah TI, Bansal AK, Dandona L. Visual impairment in school children in Southern India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1997; 45: 129-34.

This Article Cited By the following articles

Geographical Variation in Likely Myopia and Environmental Risk Factors: A Multilevel Cross Classified Analysis of A UK Cohort
Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2019; (): 1.

1
 
Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Current Ophthalmology 2018; 30(1): 3.

2
 
Normal Monocular and Binocular Visual Acuity in Seven-Year-Old Children
Hum Physiol 2018; 44(3): 257.

3
 
Refractive Error among Male Primary School Students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors
TOOPHTJ 2018; 12(1): 264.

4
 
Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of Current Ophthalmology 2017; (): .

5
 
PATTERN OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL TOWN OF BAREILLY DISTRICT
jemds 2017; 6(03): 176.

6
 
A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS AMONG 5-16 YEARS RURAL CHILDREN IN CHANDRAGIRI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH
jemds 2014; 3(47): 11411.

7
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131


Web Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=36240 [Access: November 20, 2019]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2013), [cited November 20, 2019]; 2(3): 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



Harvard Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA (2013) A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 2 (3), 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



Turabian Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. 2013. A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 2 (3), 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



Chicago Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. "A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 2 (2013), 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA. "A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 2.3 (2013), 641-645. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA (2013) A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 2 (3), 641-645. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131





Most Viewed Articles
  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Elevated levels of serum uric acid, creatinine or urea in preeclamptic women
    Magna Manjareeka, Sitikantha Nanda
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 43-47
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.43-47

  • Maternal and fetal outcome in oligohydramnios- Study of 100 cases
    Krishna Jagatia, Nisha Singh, Sachin Patel
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 724-727
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.070520132

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Prevalence and pattern of substance abuse among school childern in nothern India: A rapid assesment study
    Syed Shuja Qadri, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Surendra Kumar Ahluwalia, Rambha Pathak, Humaira Bashir
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 273-282
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.271-280

  • Most Downloaded
  • Minor disorder of pregnancy and its home management
    Lata Gururani, Atul Kumar, Gomathi Mahalingam
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(4): 684-687
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.03082015111

  • Association between serum ferritin and thyroid hormone profile in hypothyroidism
    Ashuma Sachdeva, Veena Singh, Isha Malik, Prasanta Saha Roy, Himanshu Madaan, Rajesh Nair
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(6): 863-865
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.24012015174

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Effect of sleep deprivation on the attitude and performance of medical students, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Hussein Saad Amin, Ibrahim Salamah Almazroua, Abdullah Sulaiman Alsahlan, Mohammed Abdullah Alrishan, Houssam Mourad Elmourad, Mohammed Mansour Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Ibrahim Almohaisin
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(3): 575-580
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.17112015207

  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Gunthers with haemolytic anaemia extremly rare: A case report
    Nilesh Kumar, Ankur Varshney, Arvind Anand, Dibyaranjan Behera, Ravi Anand, Ashutosh Tiwari
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 472-474
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.313-315

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Epidemiology and prevalence of dermatological diseases among schoolchildren of Medak district, Telangana—a clinical survey
    Lakshmi Kumari Villa, Gopi Krishna
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(7): 1475-1478
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.28102015238

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6
    Cited : 27 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11
    Cited : 16 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sugammadex associate persistant bradycardia
    Murat Bilgi, Abdullah Demirhan, Akcan Akkaya, Umit Yasar Tekelioglu, Hasan Kocoglu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(3): 372-374
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.251220131
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Design of fuzzy expert system for diagnosis of cardiac diseases
    Smita Sushil Sikchi , Sushil Sikchi , M S ALI
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 56-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.56-61
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Abdominal volume index and conicity index in predicting metabolic abnormalities in young women of different socioeconomic class
    Vikram Gowda, Kripa Mariyam Philip
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(7): 1452-1456
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.13102015231
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Migration and health-care access: Barriers to access government health services by migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city
    Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(1): 101-108
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.0110201424
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Non albicans Candida species: its isolation pattern, species distribution, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile
    Sachin Chandrakant Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 533-538
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.080320131
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Prevalence and clinical characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in school-age children in Taif- KSA
    Ali H.S Al-Zahrani
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 578-582
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.160420133
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • A study on the prevalence of refractive errors among school childern of 7-15 years age group in the field practice areas of a medical college in bangalore
    Pavithra MB, Maheshwaran R, Rani Sujatha MA
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 641-645
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.220420131
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]