E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar.

Abstract
Background: The upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) malignancies vary with geography. Data on epidemiology of UADT are few in India, especially southern states such as Kerala.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence and major causative factors of UADT malignancies.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients (54 male and 6 female subjects) who showed proven UADT malignancies were included. Main epidemiological factors such as age, distribution, site, histopathological types, symptoms, and levels of lymph nodes were determined. The clinical and radiological stages of each site at the time of presentation were also assessed and statistically analyzed.

Result: The male to female ratio was 9:1, with peak incidence in 50% cases at the 60–69 years age group. Most common symptom at presentation was change in voice with hoarseness (21/60) and neck swellings (18/60) with lymph node metastasis at the time of presentation. The most commonly involved site was glottis (19/60) with T1 presentation (15/19). Oral cavity lesions found in 11 of 60 cases with seven cases in T4 presentation. Hypopharyngeal malignancies were found in eight cases. Other sites found to be involved were oropharynx, nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, and salivary gland with lesser frequency. Fifty-three cases showed addictions such as tobacco smoking, alcoholism, or tobacco chewing.

Conclusion: The distribution of UADT cancers was the highest in the 60–69 years age group with male:female ratio of 9:1. Glottic malignancy showed the highest frequency. Smoking and alcoholism were the major causative factors identified. Hence, the need for education and awareness that are aimed at reducing exposure habit forming substances are emphasized. This study showed limitations such as small sample size and short duration, which warranted further multicenter studies for a longer duration.

Key words: Upper aerodigestive tract malignancies, smoking, alcoholism, lymph node, glottis, oropharynx, nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, salivary gland


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(4): 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595


Web Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=196598 [Access: February 15, 2020]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(4): 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2016), [cited February 15, 2020]; 5(4): 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



Harvard Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar (2016) Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 5 (4), 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



Turabian Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. 2016. Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5 (4), 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



Chicago Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. "Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 5 (2016), 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar. "Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 5.4 (2016), 651-655. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Pradeep Pooja, Chakramakal Joseph Andrews, Gopinatha Menon Arjun, Arayamparambil Rajagopalan Vinayakumar (2016) Prevalence and major causative factors of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5 (4), 651-655. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2016.1507201595





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