E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh.

Cited by (3)

Abstract
Background: Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is becoming a significant public health problem, and it becomes a common practice among high school, college, and university students.

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and determinants of khat chewing among Gondar University students in Northwest Ethiopia.<“Background” has been changed to “Background” and “Objectives” per journal style. Please check.>

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 872 randomly selected students in April 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of current use of khat.

Results: The lifetime and current prevalence of khat chewing among respondents was 17.9% (95% CI: 15.3–20.5) and 13.6% (95% CI: 11.4–15.9), respectively. Mental distress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.66 (95% CI: 1.05–2.61)), having friends who chewed khat (AOR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.65–5.21)), cigarette smoking (AOR: 18 (95% CI: 9.5–18)), increased classwork load (AOR: 1.9 (95% CI: 1.12–3.2)), and religious practice (AOR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.24–0.71)) were found to be independent predictors of chewing.

Conclusion: The current prevalence of khat chewing was found to be high. Actions targeting those determinants are essential to effectively reduce khat use among university students.

Key words: Current prevalence, khat use, University of Gondar


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Berihun Assefa Dachew
Articles by Berhanu Boru Bifftu
Articles by Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 2835
Downloaded: 710
Cited: 3

REFERENCES
1. Sawair FA, Al-Mutwakel A, Al-Eryani K, Al-Surhy A, Maruyama S, Cheng J, et al., High relative frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: qat and tobacco chewing as its aetiological background. Int J Environ Health Res 2007;17(3):185-95. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
2. National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC). Khat (Catha edulis). Intelligence Bulletin, Johnstown, PA: National Drug Intelligence Center, 2003.
3. WHO. Assessment of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk). Geneva: WHO. 2006.
4. Cox G, Rampes H. Adverse effects of khat: A review. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2003;9:456-63. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Goldenberg D, Lee J, Koch WM, Kim MM, Trink B, Sidransky D, et al. Habitual risk factors for head and neck cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004;131:986-93. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
6. Griffiths P, Gossop M, Wickenden S, Dunworth J, Harris K, Lloyd C. A transcultural pattern of drug use: qat (khat) in the UK. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170:281-4. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
7. Geisshusler S, Brenneisen R. The content of psychoactive phenylpropyl and phenylpentenyl khatamines in Catha edulis Forsk of different origin. J Ethnopharmacol 1987;19(3):269-77. [DOI via Crossref]   
8. Feyissa AM, Kelly JP. A review of the neuropharmacological roperties of khat. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008;32(5):1147-66. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
9. Hussain MAA. Health and socio-economic hazard associated with khat consumption. J Family Community Med 2013;15(1):3-11.
10. Al-Motarreb A, Baker K, Broadley KJ. Khat: pharmacological and medical aspects and its social use in Yemen. Phytother Res 2002;16(5):403-13. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
11. Numan N. Exploration of adverse psychological symptoms in Yemeni khat users by the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Addiction Biol 2004;99:61-5. [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Ihunwo AO, Kayanja FI, Amadi-Ihunwo UB. Use and perception of the psychostimulant, khat (Catha edulis) among three occupational groups in south western Uganda. East Afr Med J 2004;81:468-73. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
13. Selassie S, Gebre A. Rapid assessment of drug abuse in Ethiopia.Bull Narc 1996;48:53-63. [Pubmed]   
14. Alem A, Kebede D, Kullgren G. The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing in Butajira, Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1999;397:84-91. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Negussie B. Substance Use among High School Students in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Harar Bulletin of Health Sciences 2012. No. 4.
16. Gebreslassie M, Feleke A, Melese T. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum university students, Axum Town, North Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2013;13:693. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
17. Hassen K, Abdulahi M, Dejene T, Wolde M, Sudhakar M. Khat as risk factor for hypertension: A systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports; 2012; 10(44):2882 -2905.
18. Al-Habori M. The potential adverse effects of habitual use of Catha edulis (khat). Expert Opin Drug Saf 2005;4(6):1145-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
19. Ishraq D, Jiří Š. Khat habit and its health effect. A natural amphetamine. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2004;148(1):11-15. [DOI via Crossref]   
20. Saba K, Ray C. Factors associated with dental and medical care attendance in UK resident Yemeni khat chewers: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:486. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
21. Gebissa E. Scourge of life or an economic lifeline? Public discourses on khat (Catha edulis) in Ethiopia. Subst Use Misuse 2008;43(6):784-802. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
22. Warfa N, Klein A, Bhui K, Leavey G, Craig T, Alfred Stansfeld S. Khat use and mental illness: a critical review. Soc Sci Med 2007;65(2):309-18. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Anderson D, Beckerleg S, Hailu D, Klein A. The Khat Controversy: Stimulating the Debate on Drugs. Berg: Oxford, 2007.
24. Odenwald M. Chronic khat use and psychotic disorders: a review of the literature and future prospects. Sucht 2007; 53:9-22. [DOI via Crossref]   
25. Reda AA, Moges A, Biadgilign S, Wondmagegn. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis) chewing among high school students in Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One 2012;7(3): e33946. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
26. Mulugeta Y. Khat chewing and its associated factor among college students in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia. Sci J Public Health 2013;1(5):209-14. [DOI via Crossref]   
27. Aklog T, Tiruneh G, Tsegay G. Assessment of substance abuse and associated factors among students of Debre Markos Polytechnique College in Debre Markos town, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Regional State. Global J Med Res 2013;13(4).
28. Deressa W, Azazh A. Substances use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2011;11:660. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Chewing khat and risky sexual behavior among residents of Bahir Dar City administration, Northwest Ethiopia
Ann Gen Psychiatry 2018; 17(1): .

1
 
Prevalence, withdrawal symptoms and associated factors of khat chewing among students at Jimma University in Ethiopia
BMC Psychiatry 2017; 17(1): .

2
 
Suicidal thoughts among university students in Ethiopia
Ann Gen Psychiatry 2016; 17(1): .

3
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(3): 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460


Web Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=169675 [Access: December 10, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(3): 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2015), [cited December 10, 2018]; 4(3): 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



Harvard Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh (2015) Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 4 (3), 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



Turabian Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. 2015. Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 4 (3), 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



Chicago Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. "Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 4 (2015), 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh. "Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 4.3 (2015), 319-323. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Berihun Assefa Dachew, Berhanu Boru Bifftu, Bewket Tadesse Tiruneh (2015) Khat use and Its Determinants among University students in Northwest Ethiopia: A multivariable analysis. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 4 (3), 319-323. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.1809201460





Most Viewed Articles
  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Elevated levels of serum uric acid, creatinine or urea in preeclamptic women
    Magna Manjareeka, Sitikantha Nanda
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 43-47
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.43-47

  • Maternal and fetal outcome in oligohydramnios- Study of 100 cases
    Krishna Jagatia, Nisha Singh, Sachin Patel
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 724-727
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.070520132

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Prevalence and pattern of substance abuse among school childern in nothern India: A rapid assesment study
    Syed Shuja Qadri, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Surendra Kumar Ahluwalia, Rambha Pathak, Humaira Bashir
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 273-282
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.271-280

  • Most Downloaded
  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Gunthers with haemolytic anaemia extremly rare: A case report
    Nilesh Kumar, Ankur Varshney, Arvind Anand, Dibyaranjan Behera, Ravi Anand, Ashutosh Tiwari
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 472-474
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.313-315

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Minor disorder of pregnancy and its home management
    Lata Gururani, Atul Kumar, Gomathi Mahalingam
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(4): 684-687
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.03082015111

  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Association between serum ferritin and thyroid hormone profile in hypothyroidism
    Ashuma Sachdeva, Veena Singh, Isha Malik, Prasanta Saha Roy, Himanshu Madaan, Rajesh Nair
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(6): 863-865
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.24012015174

  • Effect of sleep deprivation on the attitude and performance of medical students, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Hussein Saad Amin, Ibrahim Salamah Almazroua, Abdullah Sulaiman Alsahlan, Mohammed Abdullah Alrishan, Houssam Mourad Elmourad, Mohammed Mansour Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Ibrahim Almohaisin
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(3): 575-580
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.17112015207

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6
    Cited : 23 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11
    Cited : 13 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Clinico-microbiological profile of women with vaginal discharge in a tertiary care hospital of northern India
    Varsha Chaudhary, Ved Prakesh, Kian Agarwal, Vijender Kumar Agrawal, Arun Singh, Sachin Pandey
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 75-80
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.75-80
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Correlation between obesity and cardio respiratory fitness
    Prabha Setty, BV Padmanabha, BR Doddamani
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 300-304
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.298-302
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Migration and health-care access: Barriers to access government health services by migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city
    Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(1): 101-108
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.0110201424
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Non albicans Candida species: its isolation pattern, species distribution, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile
    Sachin Chandrakant Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 533-538
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.080320131
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Initial default among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in selected medical colleges of Puducherry: issues and possible interventions
    Divija Pillai, Anil J Purty, Stalin Prabakaran, Zile Singh, Govindarajan Soundappan, Velavan Anandan
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(7): 957-960
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.30012015196
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The surgical approach in huge scrotal lymphedema
    Hiren Dahyabhai Parmar
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 153-155
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.153-155
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sugammadex associate persistant bradycardia
    Murat Bilgi, Abdullah Demirhan, Akcan Akkaya, Umit Yasar Tekelioglu, Hasan Kocoglu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(3): 372-374
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.251220131
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]