E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias

Pinaki D Wani.

Abstract
Background: A traditional clinical examination (TCE) in physiology focuses on the “knows” and “knows how” aspects and is inadequate in evaluating the overall performance of the students. Objective structured practical examination (OSPE) focuses on the “shows how” aspect of Miller’s pyramid of competence.

Objective: This study was aimed to compare and establish the relation of the marks given by examiners with varied teaching experiences in determining the validity and reliability of TCE and OSPE.

Materials and Methods: A total of 50 first-year MBBS students in Physiology were divided in two batches of 25 each. These were further divided in three batches with eight, eight, and nine students examined by three examiners with teaching experience of 35 years, 6 years, and 1 year, respectively, in each batch. All the examiners conducted TCE followed by OSPE for the same batch of students for four modules in abdominal system.

Results: Analysis of variance and post hoc Bonferroni’s test for comparative study among examiners in TCE showed significant difference (module A, P = 0.000; module B, P = 0.000) in the mean marks given by all the three examiners while OSPE showed no significant difference (module A, P = 0.829; module B, P = 0.842) in the mean marks given by all the examiners for all the modules.

Conclusion: OSPE is an objective, structured, unbiased assessment method that can be incorporated with less experienced examiners along with the TCE for overall assessment of the students.

Key words: Objective structured practical examination (OSPE); traditional clinical examination (TCE); reliability; validity; examiner’s bias


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Pinaki D Wani
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3045
Downloaded: 612
Cited: 0

REFERENCES
1. Bartfay WJ, Rombough R, Howse E, LeBlanc R. The OSCE approach in nursing education: objective structured clinical examinations can be effective vehicles for nursing education and practice by promoting the mastery of clinical skills and decision-making in controlled and safe learning environments. Canadian Nurse. 2004;100(3):18-25. [Pubmed]   
2. Mandroli PS. OSCE based assessment of three commonly performed pediatric dentistry procedures. Int J Clin Dental Sci. 2010;1(1):64-69.
3. Dissanayake AS, Ali BA, Nayar U. The influence of the introduction of the objective structured practical examinations in physiology on student performance at King Faisal University Medical School. Med Teach. 1990;12(3-4):297-304. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
4. Duffield KE, Spencer JA. A survey of medical studentsÂ’ views about the purpose and fairness of assessment. Med Edu. 2002;36:879-86. [DOI via Crossref]   
5. Newble DI, Jaeger K. The effects of assessment and examinations on the learning of medical students. Med Educ. 1983;17:25-31. [DOI via Crossref]   
6. Mohammed Al-Naami Y. Reliability, validity and feasibility of the objective structured clinical examination in assessing clinical skills of final year clerkship. Saudi Med J. 2008;(12):1802-07. [Pubmed]   
7. Ananthakrishnan N. Objective structured clinical/practical examination (OSCE/OSPE). JPGM 1993;39(2):82-4. [Pubmed]   
8. Miller G. The assessment o clinical skills/competence/ performance. Acad Med. 65;1990(Suppl. 9):S63-S67.
9. Bijlani RL. Assessment of laboratory exercises in Physiology. Med Educ. 1981;15(4):216-21. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. Edelstein DR, Ruder HJ. Assessment of clinical skills using video tapes of the complete medical interview and physical examination. Med Teach. 1990;12:155-62. [DOI via Crossref]   
11. Newbie DI. The observed long case in clinical assessment. Med Educ. 1991;25:369-73. [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Verma M, Singh T. Experiences with objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) as a tool for formative evaluation in pediatrics. Indian Pediatr. 1993;30:699-702. [Pubmed]   
13. Harden RM, Gleeson F. Assessment of clinical competence using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Med Educ. 1979;13:41-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
14. Harden RM. What is an OSCE? Med Teacher. 1988;10:19-22. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Harden RM, Stevenson M, Wilson DW, Wilson GM. Assessment of clinical competencies using objective structured clinical examination. Br Med J. 1975;5955(1):447-51. [DOI via Crossref]   
16. Friedman Ben-David M. The role of assessment in expanding professional horizons. Med Teacher. 2000:22(5):472-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
17. Gupta P, Dewan P, Singh T. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) revisited. Med Educ. 2010(47):911-20. [DOI via Crossref]   
18. Hasan S, Malik S, Hamad A, Khan H, BilalM. Conventional traditional practical examination (CPE/TDPE) verses objective structured practical examination (OSPE)/semi objective structured practical examination (SOSPE). Pak J Physiol. 2009;5(1): 58-64.
19. Nayar U, Malik SL, Bijlani RL. Objective structured practical examination: a new concept in assessment of laboratory exercises in preclinical Sciences. Med Educ. 1986,20:204-09. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Rahman N, Ferdousi S, Hoq N, Amin R, Kabir J. Evaluation of objective structured practical examination and traditional practical examination. Med J. 2007;16(1):7-11. [DOI via Crossref]   
21. Roy V, Tekur U, Prabhu S. A comparative study of two evaluation techniques in pharmacology practicals: conventional practical examination versus objective structured practical examination. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004;36(6):385-9.
22. Downing SM. Reliability: on the reproducibility of assessment data. Med Edu. 2004;38:1006-12. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
23. Hilliard RI, Tallett SE. The use of an objective structured clinical examination with postgraduate residents in pediatrics. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998;152:74-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
24. Joorabchi B. Objective structured clinical examination in a pediatric residency training program. AJDC 1991;145:757-62. [Pubmed]   
25. Carraccio C, Englander R. The objective structured clinical examination: a step in the direction of competency-based evaluation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000;154:736-41. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
26. Regehr G, MacRae H, Reznick RK, Szalay D. Comparing the psychometric properties of checklists and global rating scales for assessing performance on an OSCE-format examination. Acad Med 1998;73:993-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Pinaki D Wani. Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(5): 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122


Web Style

Pinaki D Wani. Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=157842 [Access: April 23, 2019]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Pinaki D Wani. Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(5): 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Pinaki D Wani. Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2015), [cited April 23, 2019]; 4(5): 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



Harvard Style

Pinaki D Wani (2015) Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 4 (5), 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



Turabian Style

Pinaki D Wani. 2015. Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 4 (5), 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



Chicago Style

Pinaki D Wani. "Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 4 (2015), 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Pinaki D Wani. "Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 4.5 (2015), 607-611. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Pinaki D Wani (2015) Traditional clinical examination vs objective structured practical examination in human physiology: Examiner's bias. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 4 (5), 607-611. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2015.17042014122





Most Viewed Articles
  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Elevated levels of serum uric acid, creatinine or urea in preeclamptic women
    Magna Manjareeka, Sitikantha Nanda
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 43-47
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.43-47

  • Maternal and fetal outcome in oligohydramnios- Study of 100 cases
    Krishna Jagatia, Nisha Singh, Sachin Patel
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 724-727
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.070520132

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Prevalence and pattern of substance abuse among school childern in nothern India: A rapid assesment study
    Syed Shuja Qadri, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Surendra Kumar Ahluwalia, Rambha Pathak, Humaira Bashir
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 273-282
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.271-280

  • Most Downloaded
  • Minor disorder of pregnancy and its home management
    Lata Gururani, Atul Kumar, Gomathi Mahalingam
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(4): 684-687
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.03082015111

  • Association between serum ferritin and thyroid hormone profile in hypothyroidism
    Ashuma Sachdeva, Veena Singh, Isha Malik, Prasanta Saha Roy, Himanshu Madaan, Rajesh Nair
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(6): 863-865
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.24012015174

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Effect of sleep deprivation on the attitude and performance of medical students, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
    Hussein Saad Amin, Ibrahim Salamah Almazroua, Abdullah Sulaiman Alsahlan, Mohammed Abdullah Alrishan, Houssam Mourad Elmourad, Mohammed Mansour Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Ibrahim Almohaisin
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(3): 575-580
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.17112015207

  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Epidemiology and prevalence of dermatological diseases among schoolchildren of Medak district, Telangana—a clinical survey
    Lakshmi Kumari Villa, Gopi Krishna
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016; 5(7): 1475-1478
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2016.28102015238

  • Gunthers with haemolytic anaemia extremly rare: A case report
    Nilesh Kumar, Ankur Varshney, Arvind Anand, Dibyaranjan Behera, Ravi Anand, Ashutosh Tiwari
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 472-474
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.313-315

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6
    Cited : 25 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11
    Cited : 13 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Design of fuzzy expert system for diagnosis of cardiac diseases
    Smita Sushil Sikchi , Sushil Sikchi , M S ALI
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 56-61
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.56-61
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sugammadex associate persistant bradycardia
    Murat Bilgi, Abdullah Demirhan, Akcan Akkaya, Umit Yasar Tekelioglu, Hasan Kocoglu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(3): 372-374
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.251220131
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Migration and health-care access: Barriers to access government health services by migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city
    Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(1): 101-108
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.0110201424
    Cited : 7 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Clinico-microbiological profile of women with vaginal discharge in a tertiary care hospital of northern India
    Varsha Chaudhary, Ved Prakesh, Kian Agarwal, Vijender Kumar Agrawal, Arun Singh, Sachin Pandey
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 75-80
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.75-80
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Correlation between obesity and cardio respiratory fitness
    Prabha Setty, BV Padmanabha, BR Doddamani
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 300-304
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.298-302
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Non albicans Candida species: its isolation pattern, species distribution, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile
    Sachin Chandrakant Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 533-538
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.080320131
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Initial default among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in selected medical colleges of Puducherry: issues and possible interventions
    Divija Pillai, Anil J Purty, Stalin Prabakaran, Zile Singh, Govindarajan Soundappan, Velavan Anandan
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(7): 957-960
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.30012015196
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]